For me on learning dim chords - it helps to play some jazz standards out of the jazz fake books that give you the basic sheet music for the melody with the chords.
Friends and I are playing jazz instrumentals - Goergia on My Mind, Pennies from Heaven, Sunny Side of the Street, some Duke Ellington.
Russian Lullaby has dim chords in it.
I'm not sure about patterns per se - I just play old jazz standards that seem to use dim but I know there are some loose rules on when to use them in composing or improvising. Not into that yet.
We know enough to play a couple of hours. Its a change from bluegrass, dawg and some Dead stuff we do.